Philanthropy – from Aristotle to Zuckerberg
FIRST SET OF ILLUSTRATION PLATES:
Marble and alabaster bust of Aristotle, 1st century A.D. Copy of Greek bronze original by Lysippus, 4th century B.C. Photo by DEA picture library/De Agostini via Getty Images.
2 Roman inscription
De sua pecunia fecit (DSPF) or Done with His Own Money. The Roman Emperor Trajan here boasts of extending the Appian Way from Benevuto to Brindisium. This is one of a number of inscriptions along the way, from a bridge parapet at the Canale Marana Castello (Lastra 5). The stone is now in the courtyard of the Palazzo Carmelo at Cerignola. Photo by Giuseppe Ceraudo, Università del Salento.
The stone says in abbreviated Latin:
IMP(ERATOR) · CAESAR
DIVI · NERVAE · F(ILIUS)
NERVA · TRAIANUS
AUG(USTUS) · GERM(ANICUS) · DACIC(US) ·
PONT(IFEX) · MAX(IMUS) · TR(IBUNICIA) · POT(ESTATE) ·
XIII · IMP(ERATOR) · VI · COS · V
P(ATER) · P(ATRIAE) ·
VIAM · ET · PONTES
A BENEVENTO BRUNDISIUM
PECUN(IA) · SUA · FECIT
son of the divine Nerva,
Nerva Trajan Augustus Germanicus Dacicus,
13 times a Tribune,
6 times acclaimed Emperor,
5 times Consul,
father of the homeland,
he built the road and bridges
from Benevento to Brindisi
with his own money.
Moshe ben Maimon (Maimonides) pre-eminent medieval Spanish Sephardic Jewish philosopher, astronomer and one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars and physicians of the Middle Ages. Born in Córdoba 1135 or 1138, and died in Egypt, 1204. Photo by: Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images.
4 St Ambrose
Mosaic of Ambrosius, dating from the late fifth century, in the Sacellum de San Vittore in Ciel d’Oro, the oldest part of the Basilica di Sant’Ambrogio in Milan. Photo credit: Getty Images.
5 St Basil the Great
Image of St Basil from a Great Altar door icon, Tver school, second half of the 14th century, now in the Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. Picture by SPUTNIK, Alamy Stock Photo, 1 February 1969.
6 St Louis, King Louis IX of France
King Louis IX (1214-1270) (St. Louis) washing poor men’s feet. Miniature from a manuscript entitled “Le Livre des faits de Monseigneur Saint Louis”, 15th century. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Photo by Leemage/Corbis via Getty Images.
7 Flagellants during the Black Death
Members of the sect known as the Brothers of the Cross who went through the streets scourging themselves in an attempt to take the sins of the population on themselves and save the world from God’s wrath manifested in the form of the plague. Photo by Ann Ronan Pictures/Print Collector/Getty Images.
8 15th century merchants among the apostles
Detail from ‘Miracle of St. Peter: Healing of the cripple and raising of Tabitha’, painting by Tommaso di Cristoforo Fini, called Masolino da Panicale (1383-ca. 1440), fresco, 1425, part of the fresco series in the Brancacci Chapel, Chiesa di Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence. Photo by Leemage/Corbis via Getty Images.
9 William Wilberforce
From a portrait of William Wilberforce (1759-1833) by Charles Howard Hodges, mezzotint, published 1 February 1792. Photo: Bettmann/Getty Images.
10 John Howard
John Howard (1726-1790) English prison reformer, entering Savoy military prison, London, after a mutiny in which he restored peace and persuaded the prisoners to return to their cells, c 1754. Wood engraving c1880. Photo by Universal History Archive/Getty Images.
11 Charles Dickens
Charles John Huffam Dickens, English writer and novelist. Engraving. Photo by Photo12/ Universal Images Group/Getty Images.
12 Angela Burdett-Coutts
Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts (1814-1906), the wealthiest woman in England and greatest philanthropist of the Victorian era for which she was made Baroness Burdett-Coutts of Highgate and Brookfield. Portrayed on a Kensitas cigarette card issued in 1937 as one of 50 “Builders of Empire”. Photo by Mooziic / Alamy Stock Photo.
13 Spoof application for charity in the name of Jesus Christ
Many clergy in the East End of London supported the Society for Organising Charitable Relief and Repressing Mendicity (later The Charity Organisation Society). But others thought it demeaning for the poor. One of these critics, Charles Latimer Marson, a curate at St Jude Whitechapel, in 1886 filled in a mock application form for relief in the name of Jesus Christ. Copies of the satirical document were printed and distributed by the Catholic Crusader, Thaxted. A copy is lodged in the archives of the parish of St George-in-the-East. Thanks to the parish archivist Fr Michael Ainsworth for permission to reproduce it.
14 Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) ‘Portrait upon Return from Trip to Europe’, New York City, Bain News Service, October 1913. Photo by: Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images.
15 Herbert Spencer
Herbert Spencer, (1820-1903) English philosopher and sociologist, who coined the term ‘survival of the fittest’ and is seen as the founder of Social Darwinism. Photo by Oxford Science Archive/Print Collector/Getty Images.
16 Menu for millionaires’ dinner in honour of Herbert Spencer in 1882
When Herbert Spencer, the inventor of Social Darwinism, visited New York he was feted by Andrew Carnegie and 200 of his fellows with a lavish dinner at the city’s leading restaurant, Delmonico’s. The menu, which survives – complete with rich gravy stains – is reproduced thanks to the generosity of Henry Voigt of the Henry Voigt Collection of American Menus.
17 Andrew Carnegie ‘Public Good’ cartoon
A cartoon illustration by Louis Dalrymple of Andrew Carnegie, in the attire of his native Scotland, shovelling out $100 million for libraries and other good works across a map of America, published in Puck magazine, 25 July 1903. New York Public Library. Photo: Science History Images / Alamy Stock Photo.
18 Andrew Carnegie ‘Double Role’ cartoon
A cartoon published in the pro-union weekly The Saturday Globe, just three days after Andrew Carnegie’s manager broke the strike at the Homestead Steelworks with a pitched battle in which seven strikers died along with three strike-breakers from the Pinkerton Detective Agency. Carnegie had tried to cut the wages of the steelworkers by up to 35 per cent provoking the strike. The cartoon caption reads: “Forty-Millionaire Carnegie in his Great Double Role. As the tight-fisted employer he reduces wages that he may play philanthropist and give away libraries, etc.” Image: The Saturday Globe, Utica, New York, 9 July 1892.
SECOND SET OF ILLUSTRATION PLATES:
1 Fendi fashion show 2016
Models on a glass runway built over the Trevi Fountain in Rome after its restoration paid for in 2013 by the corporate philanthropy of the fashion house Fendi. The show was on 7 July 2016 to celebrate Fendi’s 90th anniversary. Photo by Venturelli/WireImage via Getty Images.
2 Chuck Feeney – the James Bond of Philanthropy
Chuck Feeney (left), founder of The Atlantic Philanthropies and Christopher Oechsli (right), Atlantic’s President and CEO – the man hired by Feeney to supervise the giving away of all his billions. Photo © Atlantic Philanthropies.
3 Bill Gates in Africa
Melinda and Bill Gates with Mwajua Saidi and her son Rashidi who was participating in the RTS,S malaria vaccine trial in Mapinga, Tanzania, which received funding from the Gates Foundation. 28 June 2011. Photo by Frederic Courbet, © Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
4 Bill Gates and polio
Microsoft chairman Bill Gates administers an oral polio vaccine to five-year-old Nikunj Kumar. Madhu Krishna, programme officer for the Gates Children’s vaccine programme in India, helps hold the child steady at the NDMC Maternal & Child Health Chanakyapuri clinic in New Delhi. Gates announced that the Foundation was awarding two grants totalling $30 million to benefit children and students in India on 14 September 2000. Photo by Jeff Christensen/Liaison via Getty Images.
5 Richard Branson and Nelson Mandela
The British philanthropist pictured with the South African leader. Branson, who here has Mandela’s prison number 46664 painted on his forehead, funds The Elders – the group of senior international statesmen and women inaugurated by Nelson Mandela to broker peace in the world’s trouble spots. Photo by David Turnley, courtesy of Virgin.com.
6 Chris Hohn – Britain’s biggest philanthropist
Britain’s leading philanthrocapitalist, Sir Christopher Hohn, has donated over $5 billion to children’s causes – yet he has been said to have a “Swatch watch lifestyle rather than a Rolex one”. Photograph, circa 2010: Noble Draper Pictures Ltd/Rex Features.
7 Angelina Jolie with refugees after the Pakistan earthquake
The Hollywood star listens as a local woman in the remote village of Jabel Sharoon, in Pakistan-administered Kashmir, tells an aid worker about her preparations for the coming winter, which include salvaging materials from the remains of houses after the 2005 Pakistan earthquake. Photo by J Redden, United Nations High Commission for Refugees via Getty Images.
8 Bill Gates warning about the danger of pandemics
After the Ebola epidemic in 2014 Bill Gates publicly warned, every year, of the danger that a more infectious pandemic could kill 10 million people. But the world took no notice until the COVID pandemic spread across the globe in 2020. He is speaking here at the 2018 Malaria Summit in London. Photo by Jack Taylor/Getty Images.
9 Koch Brothers and right-wing philanthropy
The opera singer Samuel Ramey (left) in conversation with Charles Koch (centre) and David Koch (right) at a New York City Opera Celebration at the Lincoln Center on 5 November 2009 in New York. As well as supporting the arts and medical philanthropy the Koch Brothers donated hundreds of millions of dollars to fund conservative and climate change-sceptic think-tanks and academics at more than 300 US universities. Photo by Patrick McMullan via Getty Images.
10 George Soros and left-wing philanthropy
George Soros jokes with Archbishop Desmond Tutu at a charity function in New York City to support Aids orphans villages in Rwanda funded by FXB International as part of the Global Fight Against Aids. Soros began his philanthropy funding scholarships for black South Africans in 1979. Photo by Will Ragozzino/Patrick McMullan via Getty Images.
11 Zell Kravinsky – the man who gave away $45 million – and then his kidney
Zell Kravinsky gave away $45 million – almost everything he had – but it wasn’t enough. So he donated one of his kidneys to a total stranger. His wife only found out he had done it when she read about it in the local newspaper. Kravinsky is inspired by the philosophy of Effective Altruism which is embraced by many modern philanthrocapitalists. Photograph by Martin Schoeller, 1 July 2004.
12 The Buffetts
Warren Buffett (centre) with his son Peter (left) and daughter-in-law Jennifer Buffett (right) at a charity concert at The Paley Center in Beverly Hills, California, on 3 October 2008. Peter and Jennifer run the NoVo Foundation in New York which was, until recently, a model of reciprocal philanthropy and donor/recipient partnership. Photo by Mark Sullivan/WireImage via Getty Images.
13 The Zuckerbergs
Facebook chief Mark Zuckerberg and his paediatrician wife Priscilla Chan with their first child Max. To mark her birth the couple pledged to give away 99 per cent of their Facebook shares – then worth $45 billion – in the biggest act of philanthropy in world history. Photograph courtesy of Mark Zuckerberg, facebook.com
“Timely and fascinating,” PETER HENNESSY Attlee Professor of Contemporary British History, Queen Mary, University of London
“The definitive book on philanthropy – a deep and probing study of an increasingly powerful force in our world,” JOHN GRAY Emeritus Professor of European Thought, London School of Economics
“Good books lay out the lie of the land. Important books change it. This book does both... Paul Vallely insists that giving needs to restore its spiritual dimension whereby the giver respects the one who receives,” GILES FRASER priest and philosopher
“Magisterial ... the best single volume on the ideas that have shaped philanthropy ... stuffed with astonishing stories and illuminating interviews," ROB REICH Professor of Political Science at Stanford University.
“Comprehensive and panoramic” BETH BREEZE Director of the Centre for Philanthropy, University of Kent
"Deeply researched and wonderfully written ... a powerful call for philanthropy to do a better job of melding empathy with effectiveness" DAVID CALLAHAN, Editor of Inside Philanthropy