Paul Vallely


Introduction – Chapter 2

Source Notes

INtroduction – Chapter 2

Philanthropy – from Aristotle to Zuckerberg

Sources are credited in full on their first mention, with hyperlinks where available. Thereafter only an abbreviated source line is given.


Chapter 1

Chapter 2



(pages 1–17)

  1.   Theo Jolliffe, ‘The homeless scientist who tried to prove selflessness doesn’t exist’, Vice, 5 May 2015; Oren Harman, The Price of Altruism, London, 2010.
  2.   Jolliffe, ‘The homeless scientist’.
  3.   Michael Regnier, ‘The man who gave himself away’, Mosaic, 13 September 2016.
  4.   Jolliffe, ‘The homeless scientist’.
  5.   Acts 20:35, quoting the words of Jesus.
  6.   Martin Luther King Jr, ‘Sermon – Three dimensions of a complete life’, Strength to Love, New York, 1963, p. 72.
  7.   Michel Bourdeau, ‘Auguste Comte’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy online (Summer 2018), ed. Edward N. Zalta.
  8.   John W. Gardner: ‘private initiatives for the public good’; Robert Payton: ‘voluntary action for the public good’; Lester Salamon: ‘the private giving of time or valuables . . . for public purposes’, quoted in Marty Sulek, ‘On the classical and modern meanings of philanthropy’, in The Philanthropy Reader, ed Michael Moody and Beth Breeze, London & new York, 2016.
  9.   ‘The role of philanthropy in financing for development’, OECD, Paris 2018.
  10.   Global Philanthropy Report, Hauser Institute for Civil Society, Harvard University, 2018.
  11. Beth Breeze, ‘Understanding philanthropy: time for a new research agenda’, Kent magazine, September 2008. See also UK Giving 2004/5, Charities Aid Foundation, 2005, which shows UK giving at 0.9%, and Gross Domestic Philanthropy, Charities Aid Foundation, 2016, which shows it at 0.54% compared to 1.44% in the US.
  12. Charles Piller, Edmund Sanders and Robyn Dixon, ‘Dark cloud over good works of Gates Foundation’, Los Angeles Times, 7 January 2007.
  13. Matthew Bishop and Michael Green, Philanthrocapitalism: How the Rich Can Save the World, New York, 2008.
  14. Mark Zuckerberg, ‘A letter to our daughter’, Facebook, 1 December 2015.
  15. Marcel Mauss, The Gift: Forms of Exchange in Archaic Societies (1923), trans. I. Gunnison, New York, 1967 , p. 4.
  16. Jonathan Benthall, ‘Charity’, A Companion to Moral Anthropology, ed. Didier Fassin, Oxford, 2015, p. 361.
  17. H. G. Barnett, ‘The nature of the potlatch’, American Anthropologist, vol. 40, no. 3, 1938, p. 356.
  18. Jonathan Benthall, ‘Charity’, Cambridge Encyclopedia of Anthropology, 22 December 2017.
  19. Mauss, The Gift, p. 14.
  20. ibid, p. 18.
  21. Confucius, The Ethics of Confucius – The Sayings of the Master and his Disciples upon the Conduct of ‘The Superior Man’, Miles Menander Dawson, New York, 1915. Foreword and Li Ki, bk vii, sect. i, 2.
  22. Geoffrey of Monmouth, History of the Kings of Britain, Bk II.
  23. Christopher Durston, James I, London, 1993, p. 15.
  24. Thorston Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class, New York, 1899 (Mineola 1994 edition, p 47.)
  25. Matthew Josephson, The Robber Barons, New York, 1934, pp. 339–40.
  26. Fred Hirsch, The Social Limits to Growth, Cambridge, MA, 1976, pp. 27–31.
  27. Beth Breeze, ‘The return of philanthropy’, Prospect, 16 January 2005.
  28. ibid.
  29. Maya Angelou, Facebook, 29 March 2013. 
  30. William Harbaugh, Ulrich Mayr and Daniel Burghart, ‘Neural responses to taxation and voluntary giving reveal motives for charitable donations’, Science, 15 June 2007, vol. 316, issue 5831, pp. 1622–5.

Psychologist Paul K Piff, of the University of California at Berkeley, has spent the last decade studying the effects of wealth and inequality upon social attitudes. He has run hundreds of experiments to explore differences in behaviour between rich and poor individuals.  He and his team have examined a wide range of experiences – from how people drive, respond to quizzes and questionnaires, take pretzels from a bowl, respond to a stranger in distress, give to charity, game with loaded dice or play Monopoly with rigged rules. Among his discoveries is a correlation between the price of a car and the propensity of its owner to drive inconsiderately, selfishly or aggressively. The posher the car, the less likely it was to stop at a pedestrian crossing; BMW drivers were the worst. In the rigged Monopoly game the player allocated the superior hand (even though both players knew their roles had been decided by the toss of a coin) began to smirk, slam their counters onto the board more loudly, move the other player’s pieces, become ruder, and boast about the shrewdness of their decisions – even though their success was merely because they were given twice as much money, double the moves, and two dice to roll where their opponent had only one.

Richer contestants were twice as likely to steal sweets from a jar on a side table which they had been told were for children in an experiment in the adjacent lab. In an experiment where individuals were given ten dollars, and told they could share it with an unnamed stranger whom they would never meet, the low-paid gave away 44 per cent more than the better-off.  “People higher up on the socioeconomic ladder are about three times more likely to cheat than people on the lower rungs,” Piff told the New York Times. The rich, he claimed, were more likely to lie in negotiations, take bribes or lie to customers.  It is not only the rich who do this, of course, said Piff, “but they do it more”. His experiments confirmed what philanthropy statistics have shown for years, that despite having more to give, wealthier people are less likely to be generous.  Considering all this, the generosity of individuals like Bill Gates is all the more remarkable; Paul Piff insists that today’s mega-rich philanthropists are the exception rather than the rule. Of the UK’s 1,000 richest people listed in the 2019 Sunday Times Rich List, only 72 had in the previous year given away more than one per cent of their wealth.

Most interestingly the rich develop a psychological self-justification for their stance. They articulate what Piff calls “an ideology of self-interest”. The well-off tend to credit themselves for their own success and blame the unsuccessful for their failures. It is, he says, “how the mind makes sense of advantage”. The more wealthy they become, the more their sense of entitlement – or what Piff calls ‘deservingness’ – increases and their feelings of compassion and empathy decrease. Wealthy individuals are more likely to moralise, adopting punitive attitudes towards the poor, asking “Why should I have to use my hard-earned cash for those inferior scroungers?” At the same time their attitude to their own indulgent lifestyle is “because I’m worth it”.  As inequality in society increases, Piff suggests, the wealthy become more narcissistic, less empathetic, and more unwilling to look after the vulnerable. Wealth, he believes, dehumanises the rich and makes them more insular.

Not all psychologists totally concur. Researchers led by the Professor of Behavioural Sciences at Stanford University, Hazel Markus, writing in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, agree that money makes people selfish and anti­-social. But they suggest that it is also the case that selfish anti-social people are more likely to succeed. The rich, they argue, tend to pass on to their children “a worldview that emphasizes looking out for No 1”. Broadly speaking, they add, the wealthy value individuality, uniqueness, differentiation, achievement. By contrast people lower down on the ladder tend to stress homogeneity, harmonious social relationships, and group solidarity.  Paul Piff disagrees. The quality of meanness is not incorrigible in rich people, his experiments suggest. It is the process of acquiring and holding wealth which makes the rich hard-hearted. Piff conducted other experiments which monitored the reaction of rich and poor to a person who entered the laboratory in distress. Initially the poor did more to help the distressed individual than the rich. But when a short video about child poverty was shown an hour before the distraught person entered the room, the wealthy reacted with equal empathy. That suggests that other factors can influence the pre-disposition which wealth engenders. “We’re not suggesting rich people are bad,” emphasises Piff, “but rather that psychological effects of wealth have these natural effects.” His work suggests that “small nudges can restore levels of empathy and co-operation” and press the affluent towards the model of Reciprocal Philanthropy.

Lisa Miller, ‘The Money-Empathy Gap’, New York Times magazine, 29 June 2012.

Rebecca Cooney, ‘Fall in proportion of richest people donating more than 1 per cent of their wealth’, Third Sector, 13 May 2019

Anne Manne, ‘The age of entitlement: how wealth breeds narcissism’, Guardian, 7 July 2014

  1. Theresa Lloyd, Why Rich People Give, London, 2004.
  2. Francie Ostrower, Why the Wealthy Give, Princeton, NJ, 1995, p. 102.
  3. Olivier Zunz, ‘Philanthropy in America’ discussion, Hudson Institute, 16 November 2011.
  4. ‘philanthropy, n.’, Oxford English Dictionary.
  5. Frank Prochaska, The Voluntary Impulse – Philanthropy in Modern Britain, London, 1988, quoting the City of London Truss Society for the Relief of the Ruptured Poor, London, 1818, p. 3.
  6. Quoted in Beth Breeze, ‘Philanthropy’s bad reputation could put big donors off giving – here’s why it matters’, The Conversation, 22 May 2019.
  7. Beth Breeze, ‘Why do rich people give?’, Discover Society, 3 December 2013.



Chapter 1:

Two Visions of Philanthropy

(pages 18–49)

  1. Terence Henry Irwin, ‘Generosity and property in Aristotle’s Politics’, Social Philosophy and Policy, 4:2, 1987, pp. 37–54.
  2. By contrast, philandria is an erotic love for men, cf. Euripides, Andromache,
  3. Plato, ‘Euthyphro’, Four Dialogues, trans. F. J. Church, New York, 2009, p.3. Also see Jacob Howland, Plato and the Talmud, Cambridge, 2011, p. 192.
  4. ‘The Definitions’, The Works of Plato, vol. VI, ‘The Doubtful Works’, trans. George Burgess, London, 1854, p. 130.
  5. Aristotle saying that the autocrat Peisistratos was ‘‘philanthropic’’ and gentle, as well as understanding towards those who committed an offence against him.
  6. Norman B. Sandridge, Loving Humanity, Learning, and Being Honored: The Foundations of Leadership in Xenophon’s Education of Cyrus, Hellenic Studies Series 55, Washington, DC, 2012.
  7. Paul Veyne, Bread and Circuses: Historical Sociology and Political Pluralism (1976), London, 1990.
  8. Marc Domingo Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Eugertism, Cambridge, 2016.
  9. Cullen Murphy, Are We Rome? The Fall of an Empire and the Fate of America, New York, 2007.
  10. The parable of the widow’s mite (Mark 12:41–4, Luke 21:1–4).
  11. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, 4. 1, David Ross, rev. Lesley Brown, Oxford, 2009, p. 62.
  12. Peter Gay, The Enlightenment: The Rise of Modern Paganism, New York, 1995, pp. 107–8.
  13. Evelyne Patlagean, ‘The Poor’, in The Byzantines, ed. G. Cavallo, Chicago, IL, 1997, p. 15.
  14. Aristophanes, Plutus, 408 BC, line 550.
  15. Helen Rhee, Loving the Poor, Saving the Rich: Wealth, Poverty, and Early Christian Formation, Grand Rapids, MI, 2012.
  1. C. R. Whittaker, ‘The Poor’,’ in The Romans, 1989, ed. Andrea Giardina, London, 1993.
  2. Richard Finn, Almsgiving in the Later Roman Empire: Christian Promotion and Practice 313–450, Oxford, 2006, p. 215.
  3. Plato, The Laws (11. 936b), quoted in Roman Garrison, Redemptive Almsgiving in Early Christianity, Sheffield, 1993, reprinted London, 2015, p.41.
  4. Seneca, Moral Epistles, 51–2.
  5. Seneca the Elder, Controversies, 1. 14.
  6. Musonius Rufus, Lecture XIX. 122. 22.
  7. Musonius Rufus, Lecture XIV. 9.
  8. Rhee, Loving the Poor, Saving the Rich.
  9. See Diogenes Laertius, Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, 5.1.17.
  10. Julian, 1, Loeb, Harvard, 1913, pp. 67–71.
  11. Leviticus 25:23.
  12. Deuteronomy 24:17–18; Ezekiel 16:3–5.
  13. Deuteronomy 10:19.
  14. Garrison, Redemptive Almsgiving, p. 46.
  15. Exodus 22:21–24.
  16. Genesis 2:1.
  17. Marcel Mauss, The Gift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies, trans. J. I. Guyer, 2016 [1925]. First published as ‘Essai sur le don’, Année sociologique (n.s.), 1925, pp. 1:30–186.
  18. Leviticus 8:21.
  19. Moshe Weinfeld, Social Justice in Ancient Israel and in the Ancient Near East, Jerusalem and Minneapolis, MN, 1995, quoted in Mark R. Cohen, Poverty and Charity in the Jewish Community of Medieval Egypt, Princeton, NJ, 2005, p. 6.
  20. Psalms 24:1.
  21. Derek J. Penslar, ‘The origins of modern Jewish philanthropy’, in Philanthropy in the World’s Traditions, ed. Warren Ilchman, Stanley Katz and Edward Queen, IN, 1998.
  22. Deuteronomy 24:19–22. And Leviticus 19 says: ‘When you reap the harvest of your land, you shall not reap all the way to the edges of your field, or gather the gleanings of your harvest. You shall not pick your vineyard bare, or gather the fallen fruit of your vineyard; you shall leave them for the poor and the stranger.’
  23. Exodus 23:10–11.
  24. Exodus 20:15–17; Deuteronomy 5:19–21; Deuteronomy 27:17; Proverbs 22:28 etc.
  25. Leviticus 25:14–17.
  26. Exodus 21:2; Deuteronomy 15: 12–18.
  27. Deuteronomy 15:12–14.
  28. Deuteronomy 15:1–6.
  29. Deuteronomy 15:9.
  30. Deuteronomy 14:28–9.
  31. Exodus 20:25; Deuteronomy 23:19–20; Leviticus 25:35–8.
  32. Exodus 22:26–27; Deuteronomy 24:6.
  33. See Harvey Perkins, ‘The poor and oppressed’, in Evangelism and the Poor, Oxford, 1983.
  34. Deuteronomy 15:4.
  35. Roland de Vaux, Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions, London, 1968.
  36. Isaiah 5:8–9; Amos 5:11–13; Micah 6:13–16.
  37. Nehemiah 5:1–5.
  38. Psalms 40:17; 69:30; 86:1; 88:16; 109:22.
  39. Rhee, Loving the Poor, xiv.
  40. Cohen, Poverty and Charity, p. 7. See also Deuteronomy 14:28–29.
  41. Proverbs 16:6. ‘‘By loyalty and faithfulness iniquity is atoned for . . .’
  42. Garrison, Redemptive Almsgiving, p. 57.
  43. Matthew 5:17.
  44. William Montgomery Watt, Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman, Oxford, 1974, p. 8.
  45. Qur’an 93:9–10.
  46. Michael Bonner, ‘Poverty and charity in the rise of Islam’, in Poverty and Charity in Middle Eastern Contexts, eds Michael David Bonner, Mine Ener and Amy Singer, New York, 2003, p. 21.
  47. Edward W. Lane, An Account of the Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians, London, 1836, pp. 285–6, quoted in Amy Singer, Charity in Islamic Societies, Cambridge, 2008, p. 25.
  48. Qur’an 2:261.
  49. Qur’an 57:18.
  50. Singer, Charity in Islamic Societies.
  51. Natalie Zemon Davis, ‘Conclusion’, in Poverty and Charity in Middle Eastern Contexts, eds Bonner, Ener and Singer, p. 315.
  52. Qur’an 51:19.
  53. Ibn Tirmidhi, Sahih, III, 116–19, one of the six canonical hadith compilations in Sunni Islam, quoted in Bonner, Poverty and Economics in the Qur’an, 2003, p. 13.
  54. Bonner, Poverty and Economics in the Qur’an, in The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 35:3, Poverty and Charity: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Winter, 2005), 391.
  55. Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 6195, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 1016.
  56. Quoted in Singer, Charity in Islamic Societies, pp. 75–6 and 89.
  57. I am indebted to Amy Singer for much of this detail.
  58. Shaheen Tejani, ‘Jubilee weighing ceremonies of the past catalysed the Jamat’s upliftment’,  ismaili, 9 July 2017. Aga Khan Development Network, Ethical Factsheet.
  59. Sahih Muslim, Book 19, Hadith 4351; quoted in Natalia Zemon Davis, ‘Conclusion’, in Poverty and Charity in Middle Eastern Contexts, ed. Michael David Bonner, Mine Ener and Amy Singer, New York, 2003, p. 316.
  60. Donna Lee Bowen, ‘Abu Illya and Zakat’, in Everyday Life in the Muslim Middle East, 1993, Indiana University Press, cited in Singer, Charity in Islamic Societies, pp. 30–2.
  61. Ascribed to Umar by the tenth-century historian Al-Tabari.
  62. Kevin O’Gorman, Mario Conti and David McAlpine (2008), ‘Hospitality in necessitudine: hospices, hostels and hospitals’, Hospitality Review, 10 (2), pp. 28–35.

The interview with Jonathan Sacks was conducted on 12 September 2019




Chapter 2:

The Foundations of Western Philanthropy

(pages 50–78)


  1. Matthew 5:17.
  2. Luke 16:29–31. Dives is Latin for ‘rich man’, but was popularly thought to be the man’s name.
  3. Luke 6:20.
  4. Matthew 5:41–2.
  5. Luke 4:16–21.
  6. Matthew 14:16.
  7. Luke 19:11–27 and Matthew 25:14ff, where the discussion of the use of talents is followed immediately by the judgement of the sheep and goats in which the crucial test is helping the poor and needy.
  8. Matthew 25:37–8, and the story of the rich man and Lazarus in Luke 16:19.
  9. Matthew 23:23.
  10. Mark 12:38.
  11. Luke 7:21.
  12. Matthew 25:40.
  13. Luke 10:29–37.
  14. Mark 2:27 and also Mark 3:4, 6:2.
  15. Matthew 15:11.
  16. Mark 10:17–27 and Matthew 19:21.
  17. Stanley K. Stowers suggests that Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew is a figure largely shaped by the Stoic ideal of the sage. By contrast F. Gerald Downing has argued that Jesus can be best understood in the tradition of Cynic philosophers. Both are quoted in Runar M. Thorsteinsson, Jesus as Philosopher: The Moral Sage in the Synoptic Gospels, Oxford, 2018.
  18. Thorsteinsson, Jesus as Philosopher.
  19. Mark 6:9.
  20. Mark 6:4.
  21. Plato, Phaedrus 249d, in Plato in Twelve Volumes, vol. 9, trans. Harold N. Fowler, London, 1925.
  22. Thorsteinsson, Jesus as Philosopher, p. 184.
  23. Luke 14:12–14.
  24. Thorsteinsson, Jesus as Philosopher, p. 40.
  25. Titus 2:13, Romans 9:5, Hebrews 1:8–10. The doctrine of the Trinity was not fully articulated until the third century, but it seems implicit in the writings of Paul, and even perhaps in the Gospels.
  26. Runar Thorsteinsson, Roman Christianity and Roman Stoicism: A Comparative Study of Ancient Morality, Oxford, 2010, argues that Stoicism teaches universal love based on its view of universal humanity, whereas Christianity circumscribed love within the bounds of the believing community, although urging other virtuous stances towards outsiders – respect, patience, etc.
  27. Galatians 3:28.
  28. 1 Corinthians 13:13.
  29. Galatians 2:10; 1 Corinthians 5:11; Titus 1:7; Romans 12:8, 13; 2 Corinthians 8:14, etc.
  30. 2 Thessalonians 3:10–12.
  31. Helen Rhee, Loving the Poor, Saving the Rich: Wealth and Poverty in Early Christianity, Minneapolis, MN, 2012, pp. 113­–17.
  32. Acts 20:7.
  33. Richard Finn, Almsgiving in the Later Roman Empire: Christian Promotion and Practice (313–450), Oxford, 2006, p. 168.
  34. Romans 16:1.
  35. Romans 16:23.
  36. Philemon 1:2.
  37. 1 Timothy 6:17.
  38. Philemon 1:16–17.
  39. Romans 15:26–7.
  40. Romans 12:5.
  41. Acts 2:44–5.
  42. Acts 4:34–5.
  43. Matthew 24:34. Speaking of the end of the world, Jesus says: ‘Truly I tell you, this generation will not pass away until all these things have taken place.’
  44. Brian Tierney, Medieval Poor Law: A Sketch of Canonical Theory and its Application in England, Cambridge, 1959, p. 32.
  45. Rhee, Loving the Poor, p. xviii.
  46. Matthew 25:31–40.
  47. Evelyne Patlagean, Pauvreté économique et pauvreté sociale à Byzance 4e–7e siècles, Paris, 1977.
  48. Finn, Almsgiving, p. 182.
  49. The Jesus movement is the coinage of Gerd Theissen in The Sociology of Early Palestinian Christianity, Philadelphia, PA, 1978.
  50. Oregon, Against Celsus, 248 AD, 3.44, 55.
  51. Helen Rhee, Early Christian Literature: Christ and Culture in the Second and Third Centuries, London, 2005, p. 11.
  52. The three sections of The Shepherd of Hermas are Visions (Vis), Mandates (Man) and Parables (Sim).
  53. The Shepherd of Hermas, Mandates, 8.7–10, quoted in Roman Garrison, Redemptive Almsgiving in Early Christianity, Sheffield, 1993, reprinted London, 2015, p. 88.
  54. Matthew 19:24.
  55. Hermas, Sim, 2.5–9.
  56. ibid, 9.20.1–4.
  57. ibid, 9.31.5, quoted in Reading Patristic Texts on Social Ethics, Washington DC, 2011, ed. Johan Leemans, Brian J. Matz and Johan Verstraeten.
  58. Hermas, Sim, 1.8–10.
  59. ibid, 5.3.7–8.
  60. Helen Rhee, Wealth and Poverty in Early Christianity, Minneapolis, MN, 2017, p. xxii.
  61. Mark 10:17–31.
  62. Allan Doig, Liturgy and Architecture from the Early Church to the Middle Ages, Farnham, 2008, p.6.
  63. Eusebius, History, VI, 43, quoted in ibid.
  64. Chrysostom was Archbishop of Constantinople from 397 to 404. Judith Herrin, Margins and Metropolis: Authority across the Byzantine Empire, Princeton, NJ, 2013, p. 301.
  65. Brian Pullan reflects on this story which is recorded in the Golden Legend of Iacopo della Voragine, in ‘New approaches to poverty and new forms of institutional charity in late mediaeval and Renaissance Italy’, in Povertà e innovazioni istitutzionali in Italia dal medioevo ad oggi, ed. Vera Zamagni, Bologna, 2000.
  66. Finn, Almsgiving, Chapter 2: ‘Episcopal Almsgiving’.
  67. The Apocalypse of Paul, v.35.
  68. In Basil the Great: On Mercy and Justice and Mercy, trans. and with an Introduction by C. Paul Schroeder, New York, 2007.
  69. Gregory of Nazianzus, Oration XLIII: Funeral Oration on Basil, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia,34.
  70. The sermon has also been entitled by translators On the Famine and the Drought and I Will Tear Down My Barns.
  71. On the Rich, §4, in Basil the Great: On Mercy and Justice and Mercy, trans. and with an Introduction by C. Paul Schroeder, New York, 2007.
  72. ibid, §5.
  73. ibid, §4.
  74. ibid, §7.
  75. ibid, §6.
  76. Gregory of Nazianzus, Oration XLIII, §35.
  77. ibid, §63.
  78. On the Rich, §7.
  79. ibid, §7.
  80. ibid, §5.
  81. In an interview for this book.
  82. George E. Demacopoulos, review of Richard Finn’s Almsgiving in the Later Roman Empire in the Journal of Early Christian Studies 15(4), January 2007, pp. 578–9.
  83. Giuliana Gemelli, Introduction to Religioni e filantropia nel Mediterraneo: Tradizioni, simboli e iconografie, Bologna, 2015, p. 14.
  84. Quoted in Finn, Almsgiving, p. 242.
  85. ibid, suggests that Ambrose’s words here may echo the Old Testament Vulgate in which Daniel bids Nebuchadnezzar: ‘redeem your sins with alms and your injustices with acts of compassion towards the poor’ (peccata tua eleemosynis redime et iniustitias tuas miserationibus pauperum).
  86. ibid, pp. 147–50.
  87. Peter R. L. Brown, ‘St. Ambrose’, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2017.
  88. Peter Brown, The Ransom of the Soul: Afterlife and Wealth in Early Western Christianity, Cambridge, MA, 2015, p. 44.
  89. ‘It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle . . .’, Mark 10:25.
  90. Luke 6:20, 24–6.
  91. Luke 11:41; Garrison, Redemptive Almsgiving in Early Christianity, p. 11.
  92. See ibid, p. 56.
  93. Didache 4:5.
  94. 2 Clement 16:4. This is an earlier Clement than Clement of Alexandria.
  95. Rhee, Wealth and Poverty, p. xxviii.
  96. Countryman, The Rich Christians on the Church of the Early Empire: Contradictions and Accommodations, New York, p. 189.
  97. Chrysostom, On The Statutes, Homily 2:18–20 – my italics. Quoted in Garrison, Redemptive Almsgiving in Early Christianity, p. 11.
  98. Chrysostom, Homilies on St John, Homily 23; Garrison, Redemptive Almsgiving, p. 10.
  99. Chrysostom, Homily 73; Garrison, Redemptive Almsgiving, p. 10.
  100. Finn, Almsgiving.
  101. J. Lawson, A Theological and Historical Introduction to the Apostolic Fathers, New York, 1961, p. 15.

The interview with Jonathan Ruffer was conducted on 1 October 2019


“Timely and fascinating,” PETER HENNESSY Attlee Professor of Contemporary British History, Queen Mary, University of London 

“The definitive book on philanthropy –  a deep and probing study of an increasingly powerful force in our world,” JOHN GRAY Emeritus Professor of European Thought, London School of Economics

“Good books lay out the lie of the land. Important books change it. This book does both... Paul Vallely insists that giving needs to restore its spiritual dimension whereby the giver respects the one who receives,” GILES FRASER priest and philosopher

“Magisterial ... the best single volume on the ideas that have shaped philanthropy ... stuffed with astonishing stories and illuminating interviews," ROB REICH Professor of Political Science at Stanford University.

Comprehensive and panoramic” BETH BREEZE Director of the Centre for Philanthropy, University of Kent

"Deeply researched and wonderfully written ...  a powerful call for philanthropy to do a better job of melding empathy with effectiveness" DAVID CALLAHAN, Editor of Inside Philanthropy