Paul Vallely


Chapter 13 – 15

Source Notes

Chapter 13 – 15

Philanthropy – from Aristotle to Zuckerberg

Sources are credited in full on their first mention, with hyperlinks where available. Thereafter only an abbreviated source line is given.

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Chapter 13:

Philanthropy Goes Global

(pages 476–513)

  1. Nan Goldin: Epidemic Opioid Addiction Demands Sackler Family Accountability, Artlyst, 9 January 2018.
  2. Elizabeth Manchester, Nan Goldin biography, Tate Gallery, November 2001.
  3. Ashleigh Kane, ‘Nan Goldin opens up about her drug addiction’, Dazed, 4 January 2018.
  4. In the USA over the last two decades. Thessaly La Force, ‘Nan Goldin survived an overdose to fight the opioid epidemic’, New York Times, 11 June 2018.
  5. Joanna Walters and Vanessa Thorpe, ‘Nan Goldin threatens London gallery boycott over £1m gift from Sackler fund’, Observer, 17 February 2019.
  6. Alain Sherter, ‘New York state files fraud charges against Purdue Pharma and Sackler family’, CBS News, MoneyWatch, 29 March 2019.
  7. Barry Meier, ‘In guilty plea, OxyContin maker to pay $600 million’, New York Times, 10 May 2007.
  8. Barry Meier, ‘Sacklers directed efforts to mislead public about OxyContin, court filing claims’, New York Times, 15 January 2019.
  9. Sarah Cascone, ‘Here’s how Nan Goldin plans to hold the Sackler family accountable for the opioid crisis’, ArtNetNews, 8 January 2018.
  10. Nadeem Badshah and Joanna Walters, ‘National Portrait Gallery drops £1m grant from Sackler family’, Guardian, 19 March 2019.
  11. Frances Perraudin and Rupert Neate, ‘Sackler Trust halts new philanthropic giving due to opioid lawsuits’, Guardian, 25 March 2019.
  12. Jan Hoffman, ‘Purdue Pharma and Sacklers Reach $270 million settlement in opioid lawsuit’, New York Times, 26 March 2019.
  13. Alain Sherter, ‘New York state files fraud charges against Purdue Pharma and Sackler family’, CBS News, MoneyWatch, 29 March 2019.
  14. Hoffman, ‘Purdue Pharma and Sacklers reach $270 million settlement’.
  15. ibid.
  16. Mike Scutari, ‘Domino effect: have Sackler donations finally become toxic’, Inside Philanthropy, 29 March 2019.
  17. Elizabeth Harris, ‘The Met will turn down Sackler money amid fury over the opioid crisis’, New York Times, 15 May 2019.
  18. Angelique Chrisafis and Joanna Walters, ‘Louvre removes Sackler name from museum wing amid protests’, Guardian, 17 July 2019.
  19. Kristin Stoller, ‘Under proposed Purdue Pharma opioid settlement, Sacklers would still be billionaires’, Forbes, 28 August 2019.
  20. Sara Randazzo and Jared S. Hopkins, ‘OxyContin maker Purdue Pharma files for bankruptcy protection’, Wall Street Journal, 16 September 2019.
  21. Analysis by Foundation Works, quoted in Benjamin Soskis, ‘The importance of criticizing philanthropy’, Atlantic, 12 May 2014.
  22. Phil Buchanan, ‘Philanthropy’s blighted reputation threatens global giving’, Financial Times, 15 April 2019.
  23. Jasmine Weber, ‘New York State launches opioid lawsuit, naming Sacklers and Purdue Pharma’, Hyperallergic, 28 March 2019.
  24. Nan Goldin, Artlyst.
  25. Speaking on Today, BBC Radio 4, reported in Frances Perraudin and Rupert Neate, ‘Sackler Trust halts new philanthropic giving due to opioid lawsuits’, Guardian, 25 March 2019.
  26. The process cuts two ways however. In 2019 the investment managers, the Man Group, withdrew their 18-year sponsorship of Britain’s top literary prize, the Man Booker Prize, after the novelist Sebastian Faulks complained that the hedge fund Man, sponsors of the celebrated Man Booker prize, were ‘not the sort of people who should be sponsoring literary prizes, they’re the kind of people literary figures ought to be criticising . . . they’re kind of the enemy’. Luke Ellis, the head of the Man Group, referred to these remarks at the 2018 prize ceremony and the next year the hedge fund’s sponsorship abruptly ceased; Guardian editorial, ‘View on business and arts: cash without a voice’, 1 February 2019.
  27. Badshah and Walters, ‘National Portrait Gallery drops £1m grant from Sackler family’.
  28. Matthew Taylor, ‘Leading artists call on National Portrait Gallery to cut ties to BP’, Observer, 10 June 2019.
  29. ibid.
  30. James Pickford, ‘RSC brings curtain down on BP sponsorship’, Financial Times, 2 October 2019
  31. Peggy McGlone, ‘The Sacklers have donated millions to museums. But their connection to the opioid crisis is threatening that legacy’, Washington Post, 13 February 2019.
  32. Mike Scutari, ‘Domino Effect: Have Sackler Donations Finally Become Toxic?’, InsidePhilanthropy, 29 March 2019
  33. Phil Buchanan, ‘Philanthropy’s blighted reputation’.
  34. Anand Giridharadas, Winners Take All: The Elite Charade of Changing the World, London, 2019
  35. Anand Giridharadas, ‘When your money is so tainted museums don’t want it’, New York Times, 16 May 2019.
  36. Martin Farrer, ‘Historian berates billionaires at Davos over tax avoidance’, Guardian, 30 January 2019; Rutger Bregman, Utopia for Realists: And How We Can Get There, London, 2018.
  37. Sunday Times Rich List 2019, in Sunday Times, 12 May 2019.
  38. Katherine Blesie, ‘Bezos’s billions and the disproportionate growth of America’s top earners’, Berkeley Economic Review, 12 March 2019.
  39. Daniel Dorling, Injustice: Why Inequality Persists, Bristol, 2010. Danny Dorling, ‘Peak inequality’, New Statesman, 4 July 2018.
  40. Benjamin Soskis, ‘The importance of criticizing philanthropy’; Carl Rhodes and Peter Bloom, ‘The trouble with charitable billionaires’, Guardian, 24 May 2018.
  41. Peter Singer, ‘What should a billionaire give – and what should you?’, New York Times, 17 December 2006.
  42. Beth Breeze, ‘Philanthropy’s bad reputation could put big donors off giving – here’s why it matters’, The Conversation, 22 May 2019.
  43. Sunday Times Rich List 2019, in Sunday Times, 12 May 2019. Beacon Collaborative website,
  44. Since 1994, according to ‘The List of the 50 donors who gave most to charity’, Chronicle of Philanthropy, February 2019.
  45. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Consolidated Financial Statements, 31 December 2017.
  46. Andrew Jack, ‘Bill Gates: mobilising political leaders and donors’, Financial Times, 31 March 2019.
  47. According to David Callahan, editor of the Inside Philanthropy website quoted in Elizabeth Kolbert, ‘Gospels of giving for the new gilded age’, New Yorker, 27 August 2018.
  48. Dan Blake, ‘Bill Gates tops Forbes’s list of world’s richest’, Washington Post, 5 July 1995.
  49. Jean Strouse, ‘How to give away $21.8 billion’, New York Times Magazine, 16 April 2000.
  50. Matthew Bishop and Michael Green, Philanthrocapitalism: How the Rich Can Save the World and Why We Should Let Them, London, 2008, pp. 52–3.
  51. Katie Hafnerfeb, ‘Gates’s library gifts arrive, but with Windows attached’, New York Times, 21 February 1999.
  52. Julia Reed, ‘Melinda Gates focuses the world’s largest foundation on gender’, Wall Street Journal, 2 November 2016.
  53. Abigail Pesta, ‘Melinda Gates on her life with the richest man in the world’, Daily Telegraph, 25 November 2013.
  54. According to the Global Forum for Health Research, quoted by the ethicist Peter Singer, ‘What should a billionaire give?’
  55. Strouse, ‘How to give away $21.8 billion’.
  56. Sebastian Mallaby, ‘The 60 largest American charitable contributions of 2005’, Slate, 20 February 2006.
  57. Singer, ‘What should a billionaire give?’
  58. Donald G. McNeil, ‘Gates Foundation to double spending on vaccines’, New York Times, 29 January 2010.
  59. Reed, ‘Melinda Gates focuses the world’s largest foundation on gender.
  60. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation – no. 1’, CityAM, 17 December 2015.
  61. Peter Singer, ‘How Bill Gates and Warren Buffett are changing the world like no other humans in history’, Business Insider, 26 October 2017.
  62. Remarks of Bill Gates, Harvard Commencement 2007’, Harvard Gazette, 7 June 2007.
  63. Linsey McGoey, No Such Thing as a Free Gift: The Gates Foundation and the Price of Philanthropy, London, 2015, p. 154.
  64. Bill and Melinda Gates, ‘We didn’t see this coming’, Annual Letter, 12 February 2019. The Gates Foundation nonetheless funded CureVac, which later became one of the leaders in the search for a vaccine for the coronavirus Covid-19, with $44.2 million, including grants to work on the malaria and influenza vaccines. Marta Orosz, ‘These Are The Billionaire Investors Behind German Drugmakers Developing A Coronavirus Vaccine’, Forbes, 16 March 2020.
  65. Projected by 2028, according to the United Nations World Population Prospects, 2017 Revision, UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2017.
  66. Dean Nelson, ‘Ending polio in India is world’s greatest health achievement, says Bill Gates’, Daily Telegraph, 12 February 2014.
  67. What We Do, Polio Strategy Overview, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2019.
  68. Bill Gates, ‘Commitment helped India win the anti-polio war’, Hindustan Times, 11 February 2014.
  69. Beth Breeze, ‘Philanthropy’s bad reputation could put big donors off giving – here’s why it matters’, The Conversation, 22 May 2019.
  70. Sue-Lynn Moses, ‘The Gates Foundation is still making grants to reinvent the toilet’, Inside Philanthropy, 12 September 2017.
  71. Andrew Jack, ‘Bill Gates: mobilising political leaders and donors’.
  72. Bono and Bill Gates discuss pandemics, politics, and more’, website, 11 April 2017.
  73.  Private Philanthropy for Development, OECD, Paris, 2018 p. 36. NOTE:  IN THE FIRST EDITION OF THIS BOOK THE SENTENCE IN THE TEXT TO WHICH THIS FOOTNOTE REFERS SAID:  “By 2011 philanthropy had made its way into the official OECD figures as a separate item – accounting for about half as much as aid from the rich to the poor world”. IT SHOULD HAVE SAID: “By 2011 philanthropy had made its way into the official OECD figures as a separate item; between 2013 and 2015 it totalled $24 billion, three time more than UK bilateral aid”.
  74. Matthew Bishop and Michael Green, ‘Official aid and philanthropy: a clash of civilisations?’, philanthrocapitalism net, 5 Sept 2013.
  75. John Vidal, ‘Are Gates and Rockefeller using their influence to set agenda in poor states?’, Guardian, 15 January 2016.
  76. Michael Edwards, ‘Will “philanthrocapitalism” reduce global poverty?’, worldpoverty@manchester, April 2010.
  77. Singer, ‘What should a billionaire give?’
  78. John Naughton and Justin Forsyth, ‘Is billionaire philanthropy always a good thing?’, Guardian, 5 December 2015.
  79. GAVI website
  80. Bishop and Green, ‘Official aid and philanthropy’.
  81. What has the Gates Foundation done for global health?’, The Lancet, 373: 9,675, p. 1,577, 9 May 2009.
  82. Garry W. Jenkins, ‘Who’s afraid of philanthrocapitalism?, Case Western Reserve Law Review, 61:3, 2011, pp. 45–6.
  83. Pablo Eisenberg, ‘Strategic philanthropy shifts too much power to donors’, Chronicle of Philanthropy, 3 August 2013.
  84. Katerini T. Storeng, ‘The GAVI Alliance and the ‘Gates approach’ to health system strengthening’, Global Public Health, 2014, 9, pp. 865–879.
  85. Colin D. Butler, Philanthrocapitalism: Promoting Global Health but Failing Planetary Health, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australia, 23 March 2019.
  86. The Lancet, ‘What has the Gates Foundation done for global health?’
  87. David McCoy, in an exchange with the author, 7 September 2019.
  88. McGoey, No Such Thing as a Free Gift.
  89. Philanthropic Power and Development: Who Shapes the Agenda?, Global Policy Forum, 2016.
  90. Storeng, ‘The GAVI Alliance and the ‘Gates approach’.
  91. Philanthropic Power and Development.
  92. ibid, pp. 65–6.
  93. Ibid, p. 43.
  94. Bill and Melinda Gates, Annual Letter 2015, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2015.
  95. Elizabeth Lopatto, ‘Can GMOS end hunger In Africa?’, The Verge, 11 February 2015.
  96. Peter Buffett, ‘The charitable-industrial complex’, New York Times, 26 July 2013.
  97. Bill and Melinda Gates, Annual Letter 2014, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2014.
  98. Philanthropic Power and Development. ‘Africa’s wealth of seed diversity and farmer knowledge – under threat from the Gates/Rockefeller “green revolution”’. Statement from African Civil Society Organisations at the World Social Forum, Nairobi, Kenya, 25 January 2007.
  99. Gates Foundation plots ways of profiting from Africa’s seed systems’, Community Alliance for Global Justice press release, Seattle, 23 March 2015.
  100. Deborah Doane, ‘Really want to make a difference, Zuckerberg? Let go of your power’, Guardian, 6 October 2017.
  101. Charles Piller, Edmund Sanders and Robyn Dixon, ‘Dark cloud over good works of Gates Foundation’, Los Angeles Times, 7 January 2007.
  102. Marius Oiaga, ‘The Gates Foundation invests in companies that harm society – the foundation will not revise its investment philosophy’, Softpedia, 17 January 2007.
  103. Butler, Philanthrocapitalism.
  104. John Vidal, ‘Why is the Gates Foundation investing in GM giant Monsanto?’, Guardian, 29 September 2010.
  105. Vince Brennan, ‘Buffett’s Berkshire increases Monsanto stake as Bayer acquisition nears completion’, St Louis Business Journal, 21 May 2018.
  106. Vidal, ‘Are Gates and Rockefeller using their influence?’
  107. Global Policy Forum, 2016, p. 38.
  108. Tamara Cohen, ‘£2.5 billion of foreign aid goes to war on malaria: British taxpayers to foot majority of bill for project with Bill Gates that hopes to wipe out disease’, Daily Mail, 25 January 2016.
  109. Singer, ‘What should a billionaire give?’
  110. Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom, Oxford, 1999.
  111. Doane, ‘Really want to make a difference, Zuckerberg?’
  112. The Lancet, ‘What has the Gates Foundation done for global health?’
  113. Melinda French Gates, Women Deliver conference address, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 7 June 2010.
  114. Bill Gates, ‘The next epidemic — lessons from Ebola’, New England Journal of Medicine, 372:1381-4, 2015.
  115. Bill Gates, ‘How to Fight the Next Epidemic’, New York Times, 18 March 2015.
  116. Bill Gates, TED talk, Vancouver.
  117. Bill Gates, Ebola, beyond the headlines, GatesNotes, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 6 October 2014.
  118. Vidal, ‘Are Gates and Rockefeller using their influence?’
  119.  Andrew Jack, ‘Bill Gates: mobilising political leaders and donors’.
  120. ibid.
  121.  Letter responding to ‘Philanthropy’s blighted reputation threatens global giving’ by Phil Buchanan, Financial Times, 15 April 2019. Buchanan is president of the Center for Effective Philanthropy and author of Giving Done Right: Effective Philanthropy and Making Every Dollar Count, New York, 2019.
  122. DFID’s partnerships with civil society organisations – a performance review, Independent Commission for Aid Impact, 10 April 2019.
  123. Vidal, ‘Are Gates and Rockefeller using their influence?’
  124. Wickstead, ‘Where next for Philanthropy?’
  125. Development Co-operation Report 2005, OECD Journal on Development, Paris, 2005, p. 58.
  126. Doane, ‘Really want to make a difference, Zuckerberg?’

The interview with Ngaire Woods was conducted on 11 December 2019



Chapter 14:

Celebrity Philanthropy

(pages 514–546)

  1. ‘Sick boy weds former addict’, Daily Mirror, 3 May 1996.
  2. YouTube: Angelina Jolie was wild back in 2000
  3. John Colapinto, ‘Looking good: the new boom in celebrity philanthropy’, New Yorker, 26 March 2012.
  4. Matthew Swibel, ‘Bad girl interrupted’, Forbes, 17 June 2006.
  5. Paul Vallely, ‘From A-lister to aid worker: does celebrity diplomacy really work?’, Independent magazine, 17 January 2009 – report of the Centre for International Governance Innovation conference on Celebrity Diplomacy in The Hague, 2008.
  6.  ibid.
  7. UNHCR, ‘UNHCR goodwill ambassador Angelina Jolie launches centre for unaccompanied children’, 9 March 2005.
  8. Angelina Jolie (UNHCR Special Envoy) at the UN Peacekeeping Ministerial 2019, YouTube video, 29 Mar 2019.
  9. Vallely, ‘From A-lister to aid worker’.
  10. Andrew F. Cooper, Celebrity Diplomacy, New York, 2016, p. 29.
  11. Vallely, ‘From A-lister to aid worker’.
  12. Mike Wooldridge, ‘World still learning from Ethiopia famine’, BBC News, 29 November 2014.
  13. Paul Vallely, Bad Samaritans: First World Ethics and Third World Debt, London, 1990.
  14. Paul Vallely, Hello World: The Official Live 8 Book, London, 2005.
  15. Randall Lane, ‘Bill Gates and Bono: “partners in crime” discuss their collaboration for good’, Forbes, 6 June, 2013.
  16. Paul Vallely, ‘It is 17 years since Live Aid . . .’, Independent, 13 May 2002.
  17. About ONE,
  18. ibid.
  19. Vallely, ‘From A-lister to aid worker’.
  20. Bono and Bill Gates discuss pandemics, politics, and more’, interview in WELT, La Republicca, Le Figaro, and El País, 11 April 2017,
  21. Paul Vallely, The Long Walk to Justice, Live 8 programme notes,
  22. Paul Vallely, Our Common Interest: The Argument; Nick Stern and Myles Wickstead, Our Common Interest: Analysis and Evidence – The Report of the Commission for Africa, London, 2005.
  23. Gleneagles: what really happened at the G8 summit?’, Oxfam Briefing Note, July 2005.
  24. Vallely, ‘From A-lister to aid worker’.
  25. Maxine Frith, ‘Geldof hits back at chorus of criticism from charities’, Independent, 14 September 2005.
  26. Muhammad Idrees Ahmad, ‘Live 8 – A movement robbed of its colours’, Campaign for Press and Broadcasting Freedom, 15 August 2005.
  27. Vallely, ‘From A-lister to aid worker’.
  28. Frith, ‘Geldof hits back’.
  29. Vallely, ‘From A-lister to aid worker’; Report of the Centre for International Governance Innovation; Cooper, Celebrity Diplomacy. 
  30. ibid
  31. ‘Eno lets Bono speak to the Pope’, World Entertainment News Network, 14 October 2004,
  32. Paddy Agnew, ‘The day the “funky” Pope met “Mr Bono”’, Irish Times, 24 September 1999; Neil McCormick, ‘What Bob and Bono did in Rome’, Daily Telegraph, 30 September 1999.
  33. Edna Gundersen, ‘Bono recalls pontiff’s affection for the poor – and cool sunglasses’, USA Today, 3 April 2005.
  34. McCormick, ‘What Bob and Bono did in Rome’.
  35. Vallely, ‘From A-lister to aid worker’; Cooper, Celebrity Diplomacy.
  36. Vallely, ‘It is 17 years since Live Aid . . .’
  37.  ibid.
  38. Ellen McGirt, ‘Bono: I will follow’, Fortune, 24 March 2016.
  39. Madeleine Bunting and Oliver Burkeman, ‘Pro Bono’, Guardian, 18 March 2002.
  40. Ellen McGirt and Adam Clymer, ‘Helms reverses opposition to help on AIDS’, New York Times, 26 March 2002.
  41.  Vallely, ‘It is 17 years since Live Aid . . .’
  42.  ibid.
  43.  Senator Chris Coons of Delaware, in McGirt, ‘Bono: I will follow’.
  44.  ibid.
  45.  Vallely, ‘It is 17 years since Live Aid . . .’
  46.  Bunting and Burkeman, ‘Pro Bono’.
  47.  Nancy Gibbs, ‘The Good Samaritans’, Time, 19 December 2005.
  48.  Tom Zeller Jr, ‘Bono, trying to throw his arms around the world’, New York Times, 13 November 2006.
  49.  Ronald Brownstein, ‘The most politically effective celebrities of all time’, National Journal, 28 April 2011.
  50.  Matthew Bishop, ‘Celanthropy the Geldof way’,, 13 October 2009.
  51.  Vallely, ‘From A-lister to aid worker’.
  52.  ibid.
  53.  George Monbiot, ‘Bards of the powerful’, The Guardian, 21 June 2005.
  54.  William Easterly, ‘John Lennon vs. Bono: The death of the celebrity activist’, The Washington Post, 10 December 2010. Easterly is author of The White Man’s Burden: Why the West’s Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good, Oxford, 2006.
  55. Ilan Kapoor, ‘Humanitarian heroes?’, Age of Icons: Exploring Philanthrocapitalism in the Contemporary World, ed. Gavin Fridell and Martijn Konings, Toronto, 2013, pp. 26–49.
  56. Ilan Kapoor, ‘The ideology of celebrity humanitarianism’, Kapuscinski Development Lecture, YouTube video, 12 May 2015.
  57. Heribert Dieter and Rajiv Kumar, ‘The downside of celebrity diplomacy: the neglected complexity of development’, Global Governance, 14:3, July–September 2008, p. 263.
  58. Vallely, ‘From A-lister to aid worker’.
  59. Rachel Spence, ‘Bono, David Adjaye and Theaster Gates discuss their red auction’, Financial Times, 2 November 2018.
  60. McGirt, ‘Bono: I will follow’.
  61. Bono, 2001 Harvard University Class Day Address, Harvard Gazette, 6 June 2001.
  62. Parmy Olson, ‘Bono’s “humbling” realizations about aid, capitalism and nerds’, Forbes, 22 October 2012.
  63. Bono turns up the volume for social enterprise’, Guardian, 14 November 2012.
  64. Michael W. Chapman, ‘Bono: capitalism takes more people out of poverty than aid’, CNS News, 26 March 2015.
  65. Derek Scally, ‘Bono lays down challenge to world business leaders’, Irish Times, 24 January 2014.
  66. Marilyn Haigh, ‘Bono: capitalism is a “wild beast” that if not tamed can chew up a lot of lives’, CNBC, 24 January 2019.
  67. Elevation Partners website
  68. McGirt, ‘Bono: I will follow’.
  69. ‘Bono’, Glitzy Giving Donors, Inside Philanthropy, 5 March 2019.
  70. Fashion with a Conscience’, Heyoka, Spring 2006.
  71. LVMH cuts ties with Bono’s ethical fashion brand Edun’, Reuters, 28 June 2018
  72. (RED) website
  73. Katrina Manson, ‘TPG to invest up to $1bn in Africa with Satya Capital’, Financial Times, 17 June 2015
  74. McGirt, ‘Bono: I will follow’.
  75. Haigh, ‘Bono: capitalism is a ‘wild beast’’.
  76. Madeleine Bunting, ‘We have to make Africa an adventure’, Guardian, 16 June 2005.
  77. ‘Bono and Bill Gates discuss pandemics, politics, and more,’ ONE, 11 April 2017.
  78. Vallely, ‘From A-lister to aid worker’.
  79.  ibid.
  80.  ibid.
  81.  Jamie Drummond, interview for this book, 11 December 2019.

The interview with Bob Geldof was conducted on 18 October 2019


Chapter 15:

Geeks Bearing Gifts: Philanthropy and Politics

(pages 547–605)

  1. Niall O’Dowd, ‘Secret meeting of world’s richest people held in New York’, IrishCentral, 18 May 2009; A. G. Sulzberger, ‘A quiet meeting of America’s very richest’, New York Times, 20 May 2009; Tom Leonard, ‘The dinner that cost Bill Gates, Warren Buffett and other celebrities billions’, Daily Telegraph, 6 August 2010.
  2. Tom Leonard, ‘The dinner that cost’.
  3. Dan Alexander, ‘Warren Buffett and Bill Gates share a common hero, the under-the-radar philanthropist Chuck Feeney’, Forbes, 18 June 2014.
  4. Giving Pledge press release 30 May 2017.
  5. James Surowiecki, ‘In defense of philanthrocapitalism’, New Yorker, 13 December 2015.
  6. Michael Wines, ‘Chinese attitudes on generosity are tested’, New York Times, 23 September 2010.
  7. Naazneen Karmali, ‘Bill Gates, Azim Premji, Ratan Tata to host Bangalore philanthropy meet’, Forbes, 12 May 2012.
  8. The Giving Pledge website.
  9. Warren Buffett, My Philanthropic Pledge, The Giving Pledge website.
  10. Robert Armstrong, Eric Platt and Oliver Ralph, ‘Warren Buffett: ‘I’m having more fun than any 88-year-old in the world’, Financial Times, 24 April 2019.
  11. Buffett, My Philanthropic Pledge.
  12. Stephen Foley, ‘Warren Buffett urges young tech titans to give big and early’, Financial Times, 2 October 2015.
  13. Buffett, My Philanthropic Pledge.
  14. Website of com 11 February 2020.
  15. Alex Depledge, ‘Hand on heart, I had never thought about exiting’, 1 August 2016.
  16.  ibid.
  17.  Naomi Rovnick, ‘Wealthy millennials explore venture philanthropy’, Financial Times, 6 May 2016.
  18.  Richard Adams, ‘Oxford to receive biggest single donation ‘‘since the Renaissance’’’, Guardian, 19 June 2019.
  19.  Andrew Browne and Lingling Wei, ‘Schwarzman backs China scholarship’, Wall Street Journal, 21 April 2013.
  20. University of Oxford announces unprecedented investment in the humanities’, Oxford University press release, 19 June 2019.
  21. Howard Lake, ‘University of Oxford receives £150m gift for the Humanities’, UKFundraising, 19 June 2019.
  22. Margot Tiounine and Harriet Agnew, ‘Notre-Dame reconstruction challenging despite Macron’s vow to rebuild’, Financial Times, 28 June 2019.
  23. Harriet Agnew and Victor Mallet, ‘Notre-Dame: why the French elite is picking up the tab’, Financial Times, 19 April 2019.
  24. 2018 Global Philanthropy Environment Index, Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy, 2018.
  25. Agnew and Mallet, ‘Notre-Dame’.
  26. Eric Abrahamson, Beyond Charity, Rockefeller Foundation, 2013.
  27. Jeffrey Lewis, ‘Middle East missile mania: it’s not just Iran’, Nuclear Threat Initiative, 28 May 2019; Statement from Ted Turner on the US withdrawal from the Iran nuclear agreement, Nuclear Threat Initiative, 9 May 2018.
  28. Sam Nunn, ‘Open a nuclear fuel bank’, The New York Times, 11 July 2014.
  29. George Soros profile, com, updated 4 April 2020.
  30. Peter Conradi, ‘How the billionaire George Soros became the right’s favourite bogeyman’, Sunday Times, 10 March 2019.
  31.  ibid.
  32. George Soros profile, com.
  33. Iain Hay and Samantha Muller, ‘Questioning generosity in the golden age of philanthropy: towards critical geographies’, Progress in Human Geography, 2014.
  34. William K. Rashbaum, ‘At George Soros’s home, pipe bomb was likely hand-delivered, officials say’, New York Times, 23 October 2018.
  35. Todd C. Helmus, et al., Russian Social Media Influence: Understanding Russian Propaganda in Eastern Europe, Santa Monica, CA, 2018, p. 20.
  36. Shaun Walker, ‘George Soros: Brexit hurts both sides – my money was used to educate the British public’, Guardian, 2 November 2019.
  37. Open society foundations urge Italian minister Matteo Salvini to stop repeating false statements’, Open Society, 5 July 2018.
  38. Walker, ‘George Soros: Brexit hurts both sides’.
  39. Who are anti-Brexit group Best for Britain?’, BBC News, 5 June 2018.
  40. Jessica Elgot, ‘Billionaire says his affection for UK prompted decision, and leaving EU would leave it weaker’, Guardian, 11 February 2018.
  41. Walker, ‘George Soros: Brexit hurts both sides’.
  42. Juliet Chung and Anupreeta Das, ‘George Soros transfers $18 billion to his foundation, creating an instant giant’, Wall Street Journal, 17 October 2017.
  43. Bloomberg Billionaires Index.
  44. John Cassidy, ‘How George Soros upstaged Donald Trump at Davos’, New Yorker, 25 January 2018.
  45. Conradi, ‘How George Soros became the right’s favourite bogeyman’.
  46. Reid J. Epstein, ‘Amazon founder Jeff Bezos gives $10 million to a super PAC in first major political contribution’, Wall Street Journal, 5 September 2018.
  47. Andy Kroll, ‘Meet the megadonor behind the LGBTQ rights movement – How Tim Gill turned a $500 million fortune into the nation’s most powerful force for LGBTQ rights’, Rolling Stone, 23 June 2017.
  48. Compare Sunday Times Giving List 2020 and Sunday Times Rich List 2020 – 100 biggest political donations, Sunday Times, 16 May 2020.
  49. Sunday Times Rich List 2020 – 100 biggest political donations, Sunday Times, 16 May 2020.
  50. Sunday Times Rich List 2020, Sunday Times, 16 May 2020.
  51. University of Oxford Annual Review, 2009/10.
  52. David Brown, ‘Westons breached charity law over Tory donations’, The Times, 12 April 2010.
  53. Shane Goldmacher, ‘Trump Foundation will dissolve, accused of ‘shocking pattern of illegality’, New York Times, 18 December 2018.
  54. David Smith, ‘Donald Trump fined $2m for misusing charity for political ends’, The Guardian, 7 November 2019.
  55. Bloomberg Philanthropies website
  56. Bloomberg endows professorship for five faculties’, Harvard Gazette, 19 September 1996.
  57. Gene Russianoff, ‘Mike’s wrong, campaign fixes make sense’, New York Daily News, 9 December 2003.
  58. Michael Barbaro, ‘Bloomberg is quietly ending a charitable program’, New York Times, 18 March 2010.
  59. Kate Taylor, ‘New York’s air is cleanest in 50 years, survey finds’, New York Times, 26 September 2013.
  60. Andrew Jack, ‘A different kind of philanthropy: After success in business and politics, can Michael Bloomberg build a new model of philanthropy?’, Financial Times, 30 April 2013.
  61.  ibid.
  62.  ibid.
  63. ‘World’s Billionaires 2019’, Forbes, 5 March 2019.
  64. Lauren Fedor, ‘Michael Bloomberg launches 2020 US presidential campaign’, Financial Times, 24 November 2019.
  65. Steve Peoples, ‘Bloomberg vows to refuse donations, presidential salary’, Associated Press, 24 November 2019.
  66. Shane Goldmacher, ‘Michael Bloomberg Spent More Than $900 Million on His Failed Presidential Run’, New York Times, 20 March 2020. ‘Mike Bloomberg is suspending his presidential campaign, says he’s endorsing Biden’, Washington Post, 4 March 2020.
  67. Jack, ‘A different kind of philanthropy’.
  68. Michael Barbaro, ‘Bloomberg is quietly ending a charitable program’, New York Times, 18 March 2010.
  69.  ibid.
  70.  Alicia Mundy, ‘‘‘Risky Business’’ report aims to frame climate change as economic issue’, Wall Street Journal, 23 June 2014.
  71. Maria Gallucci, ‘States get $48m boost from Bloomberg charity to help meet Obama climate change agenda’, International Business Times, 21 January 2015.
  72. Bloomberg Philanthropies,
  73. Bloomberg Philanthropies, Annual Update, March 2013.
  74. Bequests Put Conservative Billionaire Richard Scaife Atop List of America’s 50 Biggest Donors, Chronicle of Philanthropy, 9 February 2016.
  75. Nick Anderson, ‘Bloomberg gives Johns Hopkins a record $1.8 billion for student financial aid’, Washington Post, 18 November 2018.
  76. Ben Adler, ‘Cities are lapping countries on climate action’, Grist, 29 September 2014.
  77. Larry Elliott, ‘Michael Bloomberg to head global taskforce on climate change’, Guardian, 4 September 2015.
  78. Madeleine Sheehan Perkins, ‘The governor of California and Michael Bloomberg launched a new plan to fight climate change – with or without Trump’, Business Insider, 12 July 2017.
  79. World’s Billionaires 2019’, Forbes, 5 March 2019. Bloomberg himself is not listed in the Bloomberg Billionaires Index.
  80. Bloomberg Philanthropies.
  81. Sunday Times Rich List 2019, in Sunday Times, 12 May 2019.
  82. Jane Dudman, ‘Lord Sainsbury: ‘This is why I believe in the welfare state. Certain things should be a right’’, Guardian, 19 September 2017; Hugo Greenhalgh, ‘Lord Sainsbury on 50 years of giving’, Financial Times, 20 October 2017.
  83. Hugo Greenhalgh, ‘Lord Sainsbury on 50 years of giving’, Financial Times, 20 October 2017; Dudman, ‘Lord Sainsbury’.
  84. Georgina Ferry, A Better World is Possible: The Gatsby Charitable Foundation and Social Progress, London, 2017, p. 7.
  85. Dominic Fracassa, ‘Craigslist founder donates $1 million to fight fake news’, San Francisco Chronicle, 12 December 2016.
  86. Evan Dashevsky, ‘Craigslist founder Craig Newmark has a plan to save journalism’, PC News, 19 April 2017.
  87. David Beard, ‘A million-dollar gift to journalism, without ties, and the reason for that’, Poynter Morning Mediawire, 27 August 2018.
  88. Marrian Zhou, ‘Craigslist founder gives Mother Jones $1 million to fight fake news’, CNET, 28 August 2018.
  89. Top 50 philanthropists of 2019’, Town & Country, 22 May 2019.
  90. Dashevsky, ‘Craigslist founder Craig Newmark’.
  91. Robert Frank, ‘At last, Jeff Bezos offers a hint of his philanthropic plans’, The New York Times, 15 June 2017.
  92. Stephen Foley, ‘Ambitious wealth: the Oscars and the rise of philanthropy in film’, Financial Times, 9 May 2019.
  93. Skoll Foundation website.
  94. Nat and Laura Simons, Our Giving Pledge, The Giving Pledge website, 1 May 2017.
  95. Tate Williams, ‘Top climate change donors pull back the curtain on their past and future giving’, Inside Philanthropy, 20 July 2018.
  96. Sarah Murray, ‘The politics of foundations’, Financial Times, 24 June 2016.
  97. Suzanne Goldenberg, ‘Tom Steyer: the green billionaire pouring millions into the midterms’, Guardian, 26 October 2014.
  98. ibid, quoting according to the New York-based Foundation Center.
  99. Ruby Cramer, ‘Tom Steyer moves beyond climate’, BuzzFeed, 1 February 2017; John McCormick and Bill Allison, ‘Billionaire Steyer says there’s ‘no limit’ on his spending against Trump’, Bloomberg, 18 January 2017; Tom Steyer, Encyclopaedia Britannica online, 2020.
  100. Caroline Mortimer, ‘Paris climate change talks: Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg and 27 other billionaires launch Breakthrough Energy Coalition fund to stop climate change’, Independent, 30 November 2015.
  101. ‘Top 50 philanthropists of 2019’, Town & Country
  102. Emily Gillespie, ‘Patagonia donates entire Trump tax cut to environmental groups’, Fortune, 29 November 2018; ‘Patagonia’s $10 million donation: Why they gave away their US tax savings’, BBC News, 29 November 2018.
  103. Climate Change – The US Foundation Response, Research Advisory, Foundation Center, 1 December 2009.
  104. Tate Williams, ‘Where the hell is all the climate funding?’, Inside Philanthropy, 22 April 2015.
  105. Larry Kramer and Carol Larson, ‘Foundations must move fast to fight climate change’, Chronicle of Philanthropy, 20 April 2015.
  106. Rob Reich, Just Giving – Why Philanthropy is Failing Democracy and How it Can Do Better, Princeton, NJ, 2018, p. 125.
  107. Roger Harrabin, ‘Letter makes plea to rich over climate’, BBC News, 23 May 2019.
  108. Kirsty Weakley, ‘Projects to prevent ecological collapse are ‘‘desperately underfunded’’ warn scientists’, Civic Society, 23 May 2019.
  109. Concern about climate change reaches record levels with half now very concerned’, IPSOS Mori, 12 August 2019.
  110. Americans demand climate action (as long as it doesn’t cost much)’, Reuters/Ipsos poll, 26 June 2019.
  111. Climate change and health’, World Health Organization, 1 February 2018.
  112. Matthew Taylor, ‘US philanthropists vow to raise millions for climate activists’, Guardian, 12 July 2019.
  113. World Resources Institute, ‘At UN Summit, new commitments of over $790 million to support climate adaptation for over 300 million small-scale food producers’, 23 September 2019. Richard Luscombe, ‘Amazon’s Jeff Bezos pledges $10bn to save Earth’s environment’, Guardian, 17 Feb 2020
  114. Jane Mayer, ‘Covert operations – the billionaire brothers who are waging a war against Obama’, New Yorker, 23 August 2010.
  115. Evan Lehmann, ‘Who funds contrariness on climate change?’, Scientific American, 31 March 2010.
  116. Connor Gibson of Greenpeace, ‘Koch brothers gave $21 million to groups defending ExxonMobil’s climate cover-up’, HuffPost, 6 December 2017.
  117. Kochtopus’s garden’, Economist, 7 June 2018. See also 29 August edition.
  118. Jane Mayer, Dark Money: The Hidden History of the Billionaires Behind the Rise of the Radical Right, New York, 2016.
  119. Connor Gibson, ‘Dark money: to Charles Koch, universities are propaganda machines’, Greenpeace, 27 January 2016.
  120. Mayer, ‘Covert operations’.
  121. Mayer, Dark Money, p. 42.
  122. Stephen Moore, ‘Private enterprise’, Wall Street Journal, 6 May 2006. Jim Tankersley, ‘Inside Charles Koch’s $200 million quest for a ‘‘republic of science’’’, Washington Post, 3 June 2016.
  123. Confidential Memorandum to Eugene B. Sydnor, Jr., Chairman, Education Committee, U.S. Chamber of Commerce, from Lewis F. Powell: Attack on American Free Enterprise System, 23 August 1971,
  124. Mayer, Dark Money, p. 56.
  125. ibid. The libertarian historian Leonard Liggio cited the success of the Nazi model. Liggio was affiliated with the Koch-funded Institute for Humane Studies from 1974 until 1998.
  126. James G. McGann, 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report, University of Pennsylvania, 2018.
  127. ‘Kochtopus’s garden’, Economist, 7 June 2018.
  128. Jane Mayer, ‘One Koch brother forces the other out of the family business’, New Yorker, 7 June 2018.
  129. Mayer, Dark Money, 56.
  130. Mayer, ‘One Koch brother forces the other out’.’
  131. Jane Mayer, ‘Trump vs. Koch is a custody battle over Congress’, New Yorker, 1 August 2018.
  132. The Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, Barack Obama, 2010, Bk II, 20 Sept 2010, p. 135, Washington DC, 2013.
  133. David Axelrod, ‘The election campaigners we can’t see’, Orange County Register, 23 September 2013.
  134. Just 32% of Tea Party candidates win’, NBC News, 3 November 2010.
  135. Kate Zernike, ‘Secretive Republican donors are planning ahead’, New York Times, 19 October 2010.
  136. Koch Industries secretly funding the climate denial machine’, Greenpeace, 30 March 2010.
  137. Robert J. Brulle, ‘Institutionalizing delay: foundation funding and the creation of U.S. climate change counter-movement organizations’, Climatic Change, 21 December 2013
  138. Laurie Bennett, ‘Tracking Koch money and Americans for Prosperity’, Forbes, 31 March 2012.
  139. Alex McKechnie, ‘Not just the Koch brothers: new Drexel study reveals funders behind the climate change denial effort’, Drexel University, 20 December 2013.
  140.  ibid.
  141.   Alexander C. Kaufman, ‘Fossil fuel industries outspend clean energy advocates on climate lobbying by 10 to 1’, HuffPost, 19 July 2018.
  142. ‘Kochtopus’s garden’, Economist, 7 June 2018.
  143. Bennett, ‘Tracking Koch money’.
  144. Brett LoGiurato, ‘Why Harry Reid is going nuclear on the Koch brothers’, Business Insider, 10 March 2014.
  145. Mayer, Dark Money, p. 365.
  146. Michelle Boorstein, ‘50 educators sign letter to Catholic University protesting Koch Foundation’s $1 million gift’, The Washington Post, 16 December 2013.
  147. Kevin Clarke, ‘Scholars warn CUA over Koch cash’, America, 16 December 2013.
  148. Tankersley, ‘Inside Charles Koch’s $200 million quest’.
  149. Evan Sparks, ‘David Koch, former MIT basketball captain, is now leading a new team from MIT – one that’s trying to beat cancer’, Philanthropy Roundtable, Washington DC, Summer 2012; ‘David H. Koch, prominent supporter of cancer research at MIT, dies at 79’, MIT News Office, 23 August 2019.
  150. Melanie Grayce West, ‘Charitable gifts from wealthy Koch brothers often prompt partisan reactions’, Wall Street Journal, 3 August 2014.
  151.  Scott Jaschik, ‘The wrong $25 million?’, Inside Higher Ed, 9 June 2014.
  152. Chloe Sorvino, ‘‘UnKoch My Campus’ protests spread across nation’, Forbes, 4 November 2014.
  153. Koch pollution on campus: academic freedom under assault from Charles Koch’s $50 million campaign to infiltrate higher education’, Greenpeace, 2014.
  154. Tankersley, ‘Inside Charles Koch’s $200 million quest’.
  155. MSU votes down Koch center’, Mountain West News, 28 April 2018.
  156. Valerie Strauss, ‘Professor: a disturbing story about the influence of the Koch network in higher education’, Washington Post, 22 April 2018.
  157. Michael Sean Winters, ‘The university, the Koch brothers and the ‘‘right kind’’ of Catholic’, The Tablet, 7 February 2019.
  158. Tankersley, ‘Inside Charles Koch’s $200 million quest’.
  159. David Safier, ‘Are the Koch Brothers entering Tucson’s high schools via the UA’s ‘‘Freedom School’’?Tucson Weekly, 12 October 2017.
  160. David Callahan, The Givers: Wealth, Power and Philanthropy in a new Gilded Age, New York, 2018, p. 257.
  161. Tim Alberta and Eliana Johnson, ‘Exclusive: in Koch world ‘‘realignment’, ‘less national politics’, National Review, 16 May 2016.
  162. David Callahan, ‘Extremist: what the right’s most influential philanthropist really thinks’, Inside Philanthropy, 19 October 2017.
  163. Ade Adeniji, ‘Meet the new best friend of conservative policy groups: Robert Mercer’, Inside Philanthropy, 14 April 2015.
  164. ibid.
  165. Matea Gold and Chris Mooney, ‘The Mercers, Trump mega-donors, back group that casts doubt on climate science’, Washington Post, 27 March 2017.
  166. Philip Elliott and Zeke Miller, ‘Inside Donald Trump’s chaotic transition’, Time, 17 November 2016.
  167. Callahan, ‘Extremist’.
  168. Vicky Ward, ‘The blow-it-all-up billionaires’, HuffPost, 17 March 2017.
  169. Callahan, The Givers, p. 77.
  170. Callahan, ‘Extremist’.
  171. Ward, ‘The blow-it-all-up billionaires’.
  172. ibid.
  173. A road to repeal’, New York Times, 4 February 2017.
  174. Jane Mayer, ‘Can Time Inc. survive the Kochs?’, New Yorker, 28 November 2017.
  175. Jane Mayer, ‘The danger of President Pence’, New Yorker, 16 October 2017.
  176. Callahan, The Givers, 55.
  177. 2019 billionaires net worth’, Forbes, March 2019.
  178. Callahan, The Givers, p. 182.
  179. Lena H. Sun and Amy Brittain, ‘Meet the New York couple donating millions to the anti-vax movement’, Washington Post, 19 June 2019.
  180. Stephanie Stromnov, ‘Pledge to give away fortunes stirs debate’, New York Times, 10 November 2010.
  181. Jamie Drummond, interview for this book, 22 November 2019.
  182. ibid.
  183. ibid.
  184. ibid.
  185. Gore Vidal coined the phrase ‘the one percent’ to refer to America’s wealthiest individuals. The anti-capitalist Occupy movement, inverting the phrase, described itself as ‘the 99 per cent’ or the ‘anti-one-per-cent’ movement.
  186. ibid.
  187. David Nasaw, ‘Looking the Carnegie gift horse in the mouth – the 19th-century critique of big philanthropy’, Slate, 10 November 2006.
  188. Callahan, The Givers, p. 285, quoted in Elizabeth Kolbert, ‘Gospels of giving for the new gilded age’, New Yorker, 27 August 2018.

The interview with Patrick Gaspard was conducted on 3 January 2020



“Timely and fascinating,” PETER HENNESSY Attlee Professor of Contemporary British History, Queen Mary, University of London 

“The definitive book on philanthropy –  a deep and probing study of an increasingly powerful force in our world,” JOHN GRAY Emeritus Professor of European Thought, London School of Economics

“Good books lay out the lie of the land. Important books change it. This book does both... Paul Vallely insists that giving needs to restore its spiritual dimension whereby the giver respects the one who receives,” GILES FRASER priest and philosopher

“Magisterial ... the best single volume on the ideas that have shaped philanthropy ... stuffed with astonishing stories and illuminating interviews," ROB REICH Professor of Political Science at Stanford University.

Comprehensive and panoramic” BETH BREEZE Director of the Centre for Philanthropy, University of Kent

"Deeply researched and wonderfully written ...  a powerful call for philanthropy to do a better job of melding empathy with effectiveness" DAVID CALLAHAN, Editor of Inside Philanthropy