Paul Vallely

Further Reading
Source Notes

Philanthropy – from Aristotle to Zuckerberg

Further Reading


Hugh Cunningham, A History of Western Philanthropy, Centre for Charitable Giving and Philanthropy, 2013.

Michael Moody and Beth Breeze, eds, The Philanthropy Reader, London and New York, 2016.



Marcel Mauss, The Gift: Forms of Exchange in Archaic Societies (1923), trans. I. Gunnison, New York, 1967.



Chapter 1: Two Visions of Philanthropy

Michael Bonner, Poverty and Economics in the Qur’an, in The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 35:3, 2005.

Michael Bonner, Mine Ener and Amy Singer, Poverty and Charity in Middle Eastern Contexts, New York, 2003.

Marc Domingo Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Eugertism, Cambridge, 2016.

Evelyne Patlagean, ‘The poor’, in The Byzantines, ed. G. Cavallo, Chicago, IL, 1997.

Derek J. Penslar, ‘The origins of modern Jewish philanthropy’, in Philanthropy in the World’s Traditions, ed. Warren Ilchman, Stanley Katz and Edward Queen, Bloomington, IN, 1998.

Amy Singer, Charity in Islamic Societies, Cambridge, 2008.

Runar Thorsteinsson, Roman Christianity and Roman Stoicism: A Comparative Study of Ancient Morality, Oxford, 2010.



Chapter 2: The Foundations of Western Philanthropy

Richard Finn, Almsgiving in the Later Roman Empire: Christian Promotion and Practice 313–450, Oxford, 2006.

Roman Garrison, Redemptive Almsgiving in Early Christianity, Sheffield, 2015.

J. Lawson, A Theological and Historical Introduction to the Apostolic Fathers, New York, 1961.

Christine D. Pohl, Making Room: Recovering Hospitality as a Christian Tradition, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999.

Helen Rhee, Loving the Poor, Saving the Rich: Wealth, Poverty, and Early Christian Formation, Grand Rapids, MI, 2012.

Runar M. Thorsteinsson, Jesus as Philosopher: The Moral Sage in the Synoptic Gospels, Oxford, 2018.


Chapter 3: Medieval Charity               

James William Brodman, Charity and Religion in Medieval Europe, Washington DC, 2009.

Mark R. Cohen, Poverty and Charity in the Jewish Community of Medieval Egypt, Princeton, NJ, 2005.

Edward L. Cutts, Parish Priests and their People in the Middle Ages in England, London, 1898.

Peter Hopewell, St Cross, England’s Oldest Almshouse, Chichester, 1995.

Kevin O’Gorman, Mario Conti and David McAlpine, ‘Hospitality in necessitudine: hospices, hostels and hospitals’, Hospitality Review, 10:2, 2008.

Miri Rubin, Charity and Community in Medieval Cambridge, Cambridge, 2002.

Julie Salamon, Rambam’s Ladder: A Meditation on Generosity and why it is Necessary to Give, New York, 2003.

Brian Tierney, Medieval Poor Law: A Sketch of Canonical Theory and its Application in England, Berkeley, CA, 1959.

Diana Wood, Medieval Economic Thought, Cambridge, 2002.



Chapter 4: How the Black Death Changed Everything        

John Bossy, Christianity in the West 1400 to 1700, Oxford, 1985.

Dante, Purgatorio, ed. Robert M. Durling, Oxford, 2004.

Eamon Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars, New Haven, CT, 1992.

Eamon Duffy, ‘Provision against purgatory’, Royal Books and Holy Bones: Essays in Medieval Christianity, London, 2018.

Bronislaw Geremek, Poverty: A History, trans. A. Kolakowska, Oxford, 1994.

Jacques Le Goff, The Birth of Purgatory, trans. Arthur Goldhammer, Chicago, IL, 1984.

Johannes Nohl, The Black Death: A Chronicle of the Plague Compiled from Contemporary Sources, London, 1961.

The Black Death, a collection of contemporary sources edited and translated by Rosemary Horrox, Manchester, 1994.



Chapter 5: The Great Myth of the Reformation

Ian Archer, ‘The charity of early modern Londoners’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, sixth series, 12, 2002.

A. Cunningham and Ole Peter Grell, eds, Healthcare and Poor Relief in Protestant Europe 1500 to 1700, London, 1997.

Natalie Zemon Davis, ‘Poor relief, humanism, and heresy: The case of Lyon’, Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History, vol. V, 1968.

B. Kirkman Gray, A History of English Philanthropy from the Dissolution of the Monasteries to the Taking of the First Census, London, 1905.

W. K. Jordan, Philanthropy in England, 1480–1660: A Study of the Changing Pattern of English Social Aspirations, London, 1959.

Brian Pullan, ‘Catholics and the poor in early modern Europe’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, vol. 26, 1976.Brian Pullan, Catholics and the Poor in Early Modern Europe, Aldershot, 1994.

Brian Pullan, Rich and Poor in Renaissance Venice: The Social Institutions of a Catholic State, to 1620, Oxford, 1971.

Thomas Max Safley, The Reformation of Charity: The Secular and the Religious in Early Modern Poor Relief, Leiden, 2003.

Vera Zamagni, ed., Povertà e innovazioni istitutzionali in Italia dal medioevo ad oggi, Bologna, 2000. Includes various interesting papers (in English).



Chapter 6: The Business of the State            

A. L. Beier, Masterless Men: The Vagrancy Problem in England 1560–1640, London, 1985.

James J. Fishman, ‘The political use of private benevolence: the statute of charitable uses’, Pace Law Faculty Publications, 2008.

Marjorie K. McIntosh, ‘Poverty, charity, and coercion in Elizabethan England’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, XXXV:3, 2005.

John Pound, Poverty and Vagrancy in Tudor England, London, 1971, 2nd edn, 1986.

Paul Slack, Poverty and Policy in Tudor and Stuart England, London, 1988.



Chapter 7: The Philanthropist as Activist   

James Baldwin Brown, Memoirs of the Public and Private Life of John Howard, the Philanthropist, London, 1823.

Hugh Cunningham, ‘The multi-layered history of Western philanthropy’, The Routledge Companion to Philanthropy, ed. Tobias Jung, Susan D. Phillips and Jenny Harrow, London, 2016.

Bernard Mandeville, The Fable of the Bees: or, Private Vices, Public Benefits, London, 1714.

David Owen, English Philanthropy, 1660–1960, Cambridge, MA, 1965.

Roy Porter, English Society in the Eighteenth Century, London, 1982.

Chris Waters, British Socialists and the Politics of Popular Culture, 1884–1914, Manchester, 1990.



Chapter 8: Victorian Virtues and Vices        

Clara Burdett-Patterson, Angela Burdett-Coutts and the Victorians, London, 1953.

Gillian Darley, Octavia Hill: A Life, London, 1990.

A. G. Gardiner, The Life of George Cadbury, London, 1923.

Gertrude Himmelfarb, Poverty and Compassion: The Moral Imagination of the Late Victorians, New York, 1992.

Derek Penslar, Shylock’s Children: Economics and Jewish Identity in Modern Europe, Berkeley, CA, 2001.

Frank Prochaska, The Voluntary Impulse: Philanthropy in Modern Britain, London, 1988.

Frank Prochaska, Women and Philanthropy in Nineteenth-Century England, Oxford, 1980.Richard Turnbull, Quaker Capitalism: Lessons for Today, Oxford, 2014.



Chapter 9: Survival of the Fattest

Robert H. Bremner, American Philanthropy, Chicago, IL, 1988.

Andrew Carnegie, The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie and the Gospel of Wealth, New York, 1920.

James Moore, ‘The art of philanthropy? The formation and development of the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool’, Museum and Society, July 2004.

David Nasaw, Andrew Carnegie, New York, 2006.

Barry Werth, Banquet at Delmonico’s: The Gilded Age and the Triumph of Evolution in America, Chicago, IL, 2009.



Chapter 10: Cradle to Grave: Philanthropy and the Welfare State

Hugh Cunningham, ‘Philanthropy and its critics: a history’, in New Philanthropy and Social Justice, ed. Behrooz Morvaridi, Bristol, 2015.

Clifford Longley, Just Money: How Catholic Social Teaching Can Redeem Capitalism, London, 2014.

Elizabeth Macadam, The New Philanthropy: A Study of the Relations Between the Statutory and Voluntary Social Services, London, 1934.

Frank Prochaska, The Church of England and the Collapse of Christian Charity, Social Affairs Unit, London, 2004.

Frank Prochaska,  Mrs Thatcher, the Voluntary Sector and Victorian Values, Institute of Economic Affairs, London 2005.

Frank Prochaska, New Labour and the Voluntary Sector, Institute of Economic Affairs, London 2005.

Pat Thane, ‘There has always been a “big society’’’, History Workshop Journal, 30 April 2011.



Chapter 11: The Staggering Successes of Philanthrocapitalism   

Matthew Bishop and Michael Green, Philanthrocapitalism: How the Rich Can Save the World, New York, 2008.

Georgina Ferry, A Better World is Possible: The Gatsby Charitable Foundation and Social Progress, London, 2017.

Charles Handy, The New Philanthropists, London, 2007.

Jon Henley, ‘The new philanthropists’, Guardian, 7 March 2012.

Simon Jenkins, ‘The welfare state is waning. Bring on the philanthropists’, Guardian, 28 June 2006.


Chapter 12: The Serious Shortcomings of Philanthrocapitalism

Michael Edwards, Small Change: Why Business Won’t Save The World, San Francisco, CA, 2010.

Pablo Eisenberg, ‘Strategic philanthropy shifts too much power to donors’, Chronicle of Philanthropy, 3 November 2013.

Garry W. Jenkins, ‘Who’s afraid of philanthrocapitalism?’, Case Western Reserve Law Review, 61:3, 2011.

Michael Klonsky, ‘Power philanthropy’, The Gates Foundation and the Future of US Public Schools, ed. P. E. Kovacs, New York, 2011.

Linsey McGoey, No Such Thing as a Free Gift: The Gates Foundation and the Price of Philanthropy, London, 2015.



 Chapter 13: Philanthropy Goes Global

Peter Buffett, ‘The charitable-industrial complex’, New York Times, 26 July 2013.

Colin D. Butler, Philanthrocapitalism: Promoting Global Health but Failing Planetary Health, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australia, 23 March 2019.

Michael Edwards, ‘Will “philanthrocapitalism” reduce global poverty?’, worldpoverty@manchester, April 2010.

Elizabeth Kolbert, ‘Gospels of giving for the new gilded age’, New Yorker, 27 August 2018.

John Naughton and Justin Forsyth, ‘Is billionaire philanthropy always a good thing?’, Guardian, 5 December 2015.

Philanthropic Power and Development – Who Shapes the Agenda?, Global Policy Forum, 2016.

Peter Singer, ‘What should a billionaire give – and what should you?’, New York Times, 17 December 2006.

‘What has the Gates Foundation done for global health?’, The Lancet, 373:9,675, p. 1577, 9 May 2009.


 Chapter 14: Celebrity Philanthropy

Andrew F. Cooper, Celebrity Diplomacy, New York, 2016.

‘Gleneagles: what really happened at the G8 summit?’, Oxfam Briefing Note, July 2005.

Ilan Kapoor, ‘Humanitarian heroes?’, Age of Icons: Exploring Philanthrocapitalism in the Contemporary World, ed. Gavin Fridell and Martijn Konings, Toronto, 2013.

Randall Lane, ‘Bill Gates and Bono: “partners in crime” discuss their collaboration for good’, Forbes, 6 June 2013.

Ellen McGirt, ‘Bono: I will follow’, Fortune, 24 March 2016.

Report of the Centre for International Governance Innovation conference on Celebrity Diplomacy in The Hague, 2008.

Paul Vallely, Our Common Interest: The Argument; Nick Stern, Myles Wykstead, Paul Vallely et al, Our Common Interest: Analysis and Evidence; The Report of the Commission for Africa, London, 2005.


Chapter 15: Geeks Bearing Gifts: Philanthropy and Politics

Robert J. Brulle, ‘Institutionalizing delay: foundation funding and the creation of U.S. climate change counter-movement organizations’, Climatic Change, 21 December 2013.

David Callahan, The Givers: Wealth, Power and Philanthropy in a New Gilded Age, New York, 2018.

Iain Hay and Samantha Muller, ‘Questioning generosity in the golden age of philanthropy: towards critical geographies’, Progress in Human Geography, 2014, Vol. 38(5) 635–653.

Andrew Jack, ‘A different kind of philanthropy: after success in business and politics, can Michael Bloomberg build a new model of philanthropy?’, Financial Times, 30 April 2013.

Jane Mayer, Dark Money: The Hidden History of the Billionaires Behind the Rise of the Radical Right, New York, 2016.

Vicky Ward, ‘The blow-it-all-up billionaires’, HuffPost, 17 March 2017.



Chapter 16: Is Philanthropy Bad for Democracy?

Beth Breeze and Theresa Lloyd, Richer Lives: Why Rich People Give, London, 2013.

David Callahan, The Givers: Wealth, Power, and Philanthropy in a New Gilded Age, New York, 2018.

Danny Dorling, Peak Inequality: Britain’s Ticking Time Bomb, Bristol, 2018.

Ajay Kapur, Niall Macleod and Narendra Singh, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalance (2005), and Revisiting Plutonomy: The Rich Getting Richer (2006), Citigroup Equity Strategy, New York.

Benjamin Page et al., ‘Democracy and the policy preferences of wealthy Americans’, Perspectives on Politics, 11:1, March 2013.

Fran Quigley, ‘The limits of philanthropy – time to end the charitable tax deduction’, Commonweal, 8 January 2015.

Rob Reich, Just Giving: Why Philanthropy is Failing Democracy and How it Can Do Better, Princeton, NJ, 2018.

Benjamin Soskis, ‘New realities for philanthropy in the Trump era’, Chronicle of Philanthropy, 10 November 2016.


Chapter 17: Effective Altruism – What Could be Wrong with That?

Ken Berger and Robert Penna, ‘The elitist philanthropy of so-called Effective Altruism’, Stanford Social Innovation Review, 25 November 2013.

Angus Deaton, ‘The logic of Effective Altruism’, Boston Review, 1 July 2015.

William MacAskill, Doing Good Better: Effective Altruism and a Radical New Way to Make a Difference, London, 2015; Amia Srinivasan, ‘Stop the robot apocalypse’, review of MacAskill’s book, London Review of Books, 24 September 2015.

Sean Parker, ‘Philanthropy for hackers’, Wall Street Journal, 26 June 2015.

Peter Singer, The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism is Changing Ideas about Living Ethically, New Haven, CT, 2015; John Gray, ‘How and how not to be good’, New York Review of Books, 21 May 2015, reviewing Singer’s book.

Peter Singer, Famine, Affluence, and Morality, Oxford, 1972 (reissued with foreword by Bill and Melinda Gates, 2016).


Chapter 18: How Philanthropy Can Recover its Lost Soul 

Jeremy Beer, ‘Satan was the first philanthropist’, Localism in the Mass Age: A Front Porch Republic Manifesto, ed. Mark Mitchell and Jason Peters, Eugene, OR, 2018.

Paul M. Connolly, ‘Balancing the humanistic and technocratic in philanthropy’, Tactical Philanthropy, 7 September 2011.

Rhodri Davies, Public Good by Private Means: How Philanthropy Shapes Britain, London, 2015.

Joseph Hanlon, Armando Barrientos and David Hulme, Just Give Money to the Poor: The Development Revolution from the Global South, Manchester, 2010.

Susan Phillips and Tobias Jung, ‘A new “new” philanthropy: from impetus to impact’, Routledge Companion to Philanthropy, London, 2016.





“Timely and fascinating,” PETER HENNESSY Attlee Professor of Contemporary British History, Queen Mary, University of London 

“The definitive book on philanthropy –  a deep and probing study of an increasingly powerful force in our world,” JOHN GRAY Emeritus Professor of European Thought, London School of Economics

“Good books lay out the lie of the land. Important books change it. This book does both... Paul Vallely insists that giving needs to restore its spiritual dimension whereby the giver respects the one who receives,” GILES FRASER priest and philosopher

“Magisterial ... the best single volume on the ideas that have shaped philanthropy ... stuffed with astonishing stories and illuminating interviews," ROB REICH Professor of Political Science at Stanford University.

Comprehensive and panoramic” BETH BREEZE Director of the Centre for Philanthropy, University of Kent

"Deeply researched and wonderfully written ...  a powerful call for philanthropy to do a better job of melding empathy with effectiveness" DAVID CALLAHAN, Editor of Inside Philanthropy